The core accretion model (Hypothesis 1) may be expanded to include the formation of a second series of strata which became the firmament, a sphere of rigid crystal on the edge of space.
The creation of gravity and formation of the firmament was to establish a place, heaven, where God would dwell in perpetual light because the firmament is bright like the sun, as we see from Daniel.
There's no evidence for dark matter. It's a placeholder term for an unknown phenomenon in the popular science narrative of godless existence (SciPop). It's a contrivance.
Outer darkness is only referred to three times in scripture, but by using context we can establish what and where it is. The easiest thing to take for context is the gnashing of teeth, which occurs nine times in the Bible.
I clothe the heavens with blackness, and I make sackcloth their covering.
One of our favorite ways to study the Bible is to follow a doctrine through from the first time it's mentioned to the last. This is a great way to develop understanding of the doctrine in the broad narrative of scripture.
When the sun was created heat caused a layer of the firmament to melt. The residue blackened and the layers below it detached from the body of heaven and broke apart.
God gave us free will so that believing in Him is a choice. If proof of God was in plain sight then there's no free will. God covered the proof of his presence, the firmament, as part of the plan of redemption.
Night was the darkness that resulted from the creation of light. Now God has gathered up all the darkness into a ball at the center of a spherical creation so night, technically, is inside the earth at this point.
ainstream Science (SciPop) is an inductive rationalization of the premise that the universe doesn't require a divine or supernatural cause. All evidence of the supernatural has to be rationalized as something else.