In preparing the Lexicography, Gesenius has been chiefly relied upon for definitions; but the works of Dr. Lee, Winer, Biesenthal, Furst, and others, have been compared throughout.
In popular science (SciPop) the reason why we can detect a distant brightness is because opposing forces, the solar wind pushing out and interstellar forces pushing in, cause glowing Hydrogen to accumulate, like foam on a beach.
The Third Heaven
The third heaven is the dome or firmament, which is a sea of glass. It's a rigid crystalline sphere on the edge of space which formed in response to the creation of gravity on the second day.
The Righteous Will Shine
We can deduce that the firmament, a rigid sphere of crystal on the edge of space which has been detected by the Voyager and New Horizons space missions, shines as brightly as the sun by comparing two passages.
Deducing the Presence of the Firmament
We can use Principle VI to deduce the nature of stars from current scientific research and what we know about the firmament, a rigid sphere made up of at least 12 layers of different crystal structures.
Theoretical Evidence of the Firmament
Current cosmological models of the universe appear to show that 80% of the mass of the universe is missing. There's no physical reason why the cosmos maintains its current stable state.
Empirical Evidence of the Firmament
Let's look at empirical evidence of the firmament. That means direct observation. The most recent confirmation that we have of the presence of the firmament is from the New Horizons space mission.
The image here was taken by Voyager 1 by aiming its cameras back towards the Earth and taking a series of pictures. It is called the Solar System Family Portrait.
The Distance to the Firmament
The distance to the firmament (heaven), from the center of the Earth, is approx. 1,736,441 light years. But we (that's me and the Holy spirit) would appreciate it if someone would check our math.
A Pavement of Sapphire Stone
You may be uncomfortable with the idea that God uses a section of the firmament as a movable platform like a giant cosmic surfboard. We get it, this is a deep end and we went off it. It's what we do.