The core accretion model (Hypothesis 1) may be expanded to include the formation of a second series of strata which became the firmament, a sphere of rigid crystal on the edge of space.
Current cosmological models of the universe appear to show that 80% of the mass of the universe is missing. There's no physical reason why the cosmos maintains its current stable state.
Let's look at empirical evidence of the firmament. That means direct observation. The most recent confirmation that we have of the presence of the firmament is from the New Horizons space mission.
You may be uncomfortable with the idea that God uses a section of the firmament as a movable platform like a giant cosmic surfboard. We get it, this is a deep end and we went off it. It's what we do.
The Hebrew word translated as "firmament" is raqia. A simple definition is "expanse" so most translations render the meaning as "the expanse of the sky."
Accepting the firmament as a sphere of rigid crystal on the edge of space solves many scriptural and physical problems. The King James Version is the only Bible from which an accurate cosmological model may be deduced.
One of our favorite ways to study the Bible is to follow a doctrine through from the first time it's mentioned to the last. This is a great way to develop understanding of the doctrine in the broad narrative of scripture.
Accepting the firmament as a sphere of rigid crystal on the edge of space solves scriptural and physical problems. The King James Bible is the only one from which an accurate cosmological model may be deduced.