September 15th

Hardened lava flows around a volcano

Earth in Upheaval is the name of a book by Immanuel Velikovsky which lays out his summary of the evidence for cataclysmic upheavals in the history of Earth. Like a lot of things, it's partly right and partly wrong.

September 2nd

Pangaea was a contiguous landmass after Noah's flood, but it appears to have had a centrally located ocean which became the Mediterranean sea. The coasts of this sea became the cradle of civilization.